Bibliography of general papers on
the snowball Earth hypothesis


Edgeworth David, T.W., 1907. Conditions of climate at different geological epochs, with special reference to glacial epochs. Report of the 10th Session, International Geological Congress 1906, Mexico 1, 437-482.

Holtedahl, O., 1918. Varangerhalvøn: Strøet omkring bunden av Varangerfjord. Norsk Geologiske Undersøkelse 84, 148-173.

Holtedahl, O., 1922. A tillite-like conglomerate in the "Eocambrian" sparagmite of southern Norway. American Journal of Science 4, 165-173.

Holtedahl, O., 1930. Additional observations on the rock formations of Finnmarken, northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 11, 16-279.

Rosendahl, H., 1931. Bidrag til Varangernesets geologi. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 25, 327-349.

Lee, Y.Y., 1936. The Sinian glaciation in the lower Yangtze valley. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 15, 131-000.

Mawson, D., 1949. The Late Precambrian ice age and glacial record of the Bibliando dome. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 82, 150-174.


Harland, W.B., 1964. Evidence of late Precambrian glaciation and its significance. In: Nairn, A.E.M. (ed.) Problems in Palaeoclimatology. Interscience, London, p. 119-149.

Harland, W.B., 1964. Critical evidence for a great infra-Cambrian glaciation. Geologische Rundschau 54, 45-61.

Harland, W.B. and Rudwick, M.J.S., 1964. The great infra-Cambrian ice age. Scientific American. August 1964, 42-49.


Dunn, P.R., Thomson, B.P., & Rankama, K., 1971. Late Pre-Cambrian glaciation in Australia as a stratigraphic boundary. Nature 231, 498-502.

Williams, G.E., 1972. Geological evidence relating to the origin and secular rotation of the Solar system. Modern Geology 3, 165-181.


Chumakov, N.M. & Elston, D.P., 1989. The paradox of Late Proterozoic glaciations at low latitudes. Episodes 12, 115-120.

Hambrey, M.J. & Harland, W.B., 1985. The Late Proterozoic glacial era. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 51, 255-272.

Sheldon, R.P., 1984. Ice-ring origin of the Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere and Late Proterozoic­Cambrian hypothesis. Geological Survey of India Special Publication 17, 17-21

Young, G.M., 1988. Proterozoic plate tectonics, glaciation and iron-formations. Sedimentary Geology 58, 127-144.


Hambrey, M.J., 1992. Secrets of a tropical ice age. New Scientist, 1 Feb., 42-49.

Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P. & Schrag, D.P., 1998. A Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science 281, 1342-46.

Kirschvink, J.L., 1992. Late Proterozoic low-latitude glaciation: the snowball Earth. In The Proterozoic Biosphere, Schopf, J.W. and Klein, C., eds., pp. 51-52, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Schmidt, P.W. & Williams, G.E., 1995. The Neoproterozoic climatic paradox: Equatorial paleolatitude for Marinoan glaciation near sea level in South Australia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 134, 107-124.


Christie-Blick, N., Sohl, L.E., & Kennedy, M.J., 1999. Considering a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science 284 online,  HYPERLINK ""

Crowell, J.C., 1999. Pre-Mesozoic ice ages: their bearing on understanding the climate system. Geological Society of America Memoir 192, Boulder, CO, 106 p.

Hoffman, P.F., 1999. The break-up of Rodinia, birth of Gondwana, true polar wander and the snowball Earth. Journal of African Earth Sciences 28, 17-33.

Hoffman, P.F. & Schrag, D.P., 1999. Response: Considering a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Science 284 online,  HYPERLINK ""

Hoffman, P.F., 1999. Snowball Earth theory still stands. Nature 400, 708.

Hoffman, P.F. & Maloof, A.C., 1999. Glaciation: the snowball theory still holds water. Nature 397, 384.


Evans, D.A.D., 2000. Stratigraphic, geochronological, and paleomagnetic constraints upon the Neoproterozoic climatic paradox. American Journal of Science 300, 347-433.

Hoffman, P.F. & Schrag, D.P., 2000. Snowball Earth. Scientific American 282, 68-75.

Kirschvink, J.L., Gaidos, E.J., Bertani, L.E., Beukes, N.J., Gutsmer, J., Maepa, L.N. & Steinberger, R.E., 2000. Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, 1400-1405.


Fairchild, I.J., 2001. Encapsulating climatic catastrophe: Snowball Earth. Geoscientist 11, 00-00.

Hoffman, P.F. & Maloof, A.C., 2001. Tilting at snowballs.


Kirschvink, J.L., 2002. Quand tous les océans étaient gelés (When all of the oceans were frozen). La Recherche 355, 26-30.

Hoffman, P.F. & Schrag, D.P., 2002. The snowball Earth hypothesis: testing the limits of global change. Terra Nova 14, 129-155.


Evans, D.A.D., 2003. A fundamental Precambrian­Phanerozoic shift in earth’s glacial style? Tectonophysics 375, 353-385.

Eyles, N. & Januszczak, N., 2003. ‘Zipper-rift’: a tectonic model for Neoproterozoic glaciations during the breakup of Rodinia after 750 Ma. Earth-Science Reviews 65, 1-73.

Walker, G., 2003. Snowball Earth: the story of the great global catastrophe that spawned life as we know it. Crown Publishers, New York, 269 p.

Walker, G., 2003. The longest winter. Natural History, April 2003. 44-51.


Eyles, N., 2004. Frozen in time: concepts of ‘global glaciation’ from 1837 (die Eiszeit) to 1998 (the Snowball Earth). Geoscience Canada 31, 157-166.

McMenamin, M.A.S., 2004. Climate, paleoecology and abrupt change during the late Proterozoic: a consideration of causes and effects. In: Jenkins, G.S., McMenamin, M.A.S., McKey, C.P., & Sohl, L. (eds.) The Extreme Proterozoic: Geology, Geochemistry, and Climate. Geophysical Monograph 146, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC., p. 215-229.

Williams, G.E. & Schmidt, P.W., 2004. Neoproterozoic glaciation: reconciling low paleolatitudes and the geologic record. In: Jenkins, G.S., McMenamin, M.A.S., McKey, C.P., and Sohl, L. (eds.) The Extreme Proterozoic: Geology, Geochemistry, and Climate. Geophysical Monograph 146, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC., p. 145-159.